Currently, coffee trees are grown in more than 50 countries around the world, including some famous coffee exporting countries are Brazil, Columbia.
Coffee beans are taken from the seeds of coffee tree species (Rubiaceae), including three main coffee tree lines:
- Coffea arabica (Arabica coffee) – tea coffee.
- Coffea canephora (Robusta coffee) – Robusta coffee.
- Coffea excelsa (Liberia coffee) – jackfruit coffee.
Arabica coffee prefers to live in high mountains. Arabica is usually grown at an altitude of 1000 – 1500m. The tree has large canopy, dark green, oval leaves. Mature coffee trees can be 4 – 6m tall, if grown wild can be as high as 15m. Oval fruit, each containing two seeds. Arabica has the most economic value among the coffee species.
Although there are many varieties of Arabica coffee, C. arabica and C. arabica Bourbon are known as the first varieties. Other varieties are only thought to be the product of these two varieties. Bourbon coffee was brought to America by the French, then flourished here. Although these two varieties are most commonly grown, there are a few other varieties that play an important role in the world. The high yield and resistance to pests and diseases of the tree are the two factors that determine which varieties will be planted. The taste of coffee is also often judged in this regard.
Arabica coffee includes: Typica, Bourbon, Caturra, Mundo Novo, Catuai, Pache Commum, Pache Colis, Cartimor, Kent, Maragogype, Maragogype, Blue Mountain
This is the basic plant from which many other varieties can be created. Like other Arabica varieties, Typica has a cone with a straight main body and many oblique parent bodies. Typica up to 3.5 to 4 meters high. Tree branches form angles of 50 – 70 degrees from the straight trunk of the tree. Typica has very low productivity but produces a great quality coffee.
Bourbon has 20-30% more yield than Typica, but is the same variety with the least coffee of all. Bourbon does not have a clear cone like Typica, but has more branches. The angle between branches and stem is smaller, and the distance between the roots of the branches on the stem is very small. Wide leaves with wavy edges. The fruit is small and dense. The fruits usually ripen very quickly and easily drop when there is wind or heavy rain. This variety produces the best results at 1,000 to 2,000 meters. The quality of coffee is also very good like Typica.